Recurrent Infections or Immunodeficiency

Editor: V. Dimov, M.D., Allergist/Immunologist, Cleveland Clinic Florida, Clinical Associate Professor, FAU Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine

Immunodeficiency disorders occur when the body's immune response is reduced or absent. This makes the patient susceptible to infections. More than 180 different primary immunodeficiencies (PID) have been described since 1950s. IgA deficiency is the most common PID, and affects 1 in 300 to 1 in 500 people.

10 Warning Signs of Primary Immunodeficiency in Children

1. Four or more new ear infections within one year.
2. Two or more sinus infections within one year, or chronic sinusitis.
3. Two or more months on antibiotics with little effect.
4. Two or more pneumonias within one year, or pneumonia twice over any time.
5. Failure of an infant to gain weight or grow normally.
6. Recurrent, deep skin or organ abscesses.
7. Persistent thrush in mouth or fungal infection on skin.
8. Need for intravenous antibiotics to clear infection.
9. Two or more deep-seated infections including septicemia.
10. A family history of primary immunodeficiency.

10 Warning Signs of Primary Immunodeficiency in Adults

1. Two or more new ear infections within one year.
2. Two or more serious sinus infections within one year, in the absence of an allergy; or chronic sinusitis.
3. One pneumonia per year for more than one year, or pneumonia twice over any time.
4. Chronic diarrhea with weight loss.
5. Recurrent viral infections (colds, herpes, warts, condyloma).
6. Recurrent need for intravenous antibiotics to clear infections.
7. Recurrent, deep abscesses of the skin or internal organs.
8. Persistent thrush or fungal infection on skin or elsewhere.
9. Infection with normally harmless tuberculosis-like bacteria.
10. A family history of primary immunodeficiency.

Source: JMFworld.com



Autoimmune conditions vs Immunodeficiency (click to enlarge the image).

Educational materials
Children PIDD (Immunodeficiency) (PDF)
Children PIDD (Immunodeficiency) (illustrated PDF)
Adult PIDD (Immunodeficiency) (PDF)
4 Stages of Immunologic Testing (PDF)
Patient & Family Handbook from Immune Deficiency Foundation
Publications (PDF books) from Immune Deficiency Foundation
Sinusitis
Saline sinus rinse
Rhinosinusitis: Saline sinus rinse recipe
Allergy Testing
Kids Connection, Books and Toys from Immune Deficiency Foundation (IDF)


Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDD) (click to enlarge the image).

Related resources:

http://immunodeficiencysearch.com

Practice parameter for the diagnosis and management of primary immunodeficiency (PIDD) - 2015 update in JACI http://buff.ly/1Jc94EQ

Algorithm 1: General Approach for the Diagnosis of Primary Immunodeficiency
Algorithm 2: Diagnosis of Humoral Immunodeficiency
Algorithm 3: Diagnosis of Cellular and Combined Immunodeficiencies
Algorithm 4: Diagnosis of Phagocyte Defects
Algorithm 5: Diagnosis of Complement Deficiency
Algorithm 6: General Considerations for Therapy of Primary Immunodeficiency

Image source: Wikipedia.

Published: 06/28/2007
Updated: 11/07/2017

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